Raghu B. Garud

Color portrait of Raghu B. Garud

Professor, Farrell Chair in Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Department Management and Organization
Office Address 431 Business Building
Phone Number 814-863-4534
Email Address rgarud@psu.edu

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Raghu Garud is the Michael J. Farrell Chair and Professor of Management and Organization. His research explores the emergence of novelty and its adoption. Specifically, he is interested in understanding how new ideas emerge, are valued, and become institutionalized. He has written extensively on these topics, offering concepts such as path creation, economies of substitution, technology entrepreneurship, bricolage and the socio-cognitive bases for technology emergence. His work was recognized by the Technology and Innovation Management Division of the Academy of Management as its distinguished scholar for 2020.

Raghu takes an engaged scholarship approach. He interacts with practitioners in the field, and theorizes about the issues they confront. For instance, his five-year Ph.D. work emerged through engaged scholarship with 3M Corporation. Subsequently, he continued with such scholarship by engaging with practitioners at Infosys Technologies, MindTree, NCR Corporation, Technical Research Education Center, wind turbine actors in Denmark, and scientists at ATLAS CERN in Geneva.

Before joining Pennsylvania State University, Raghu was on the faculty at the Stern School of Business, New York University. He was a Fellow of the Sydney Sussex College, the University of Cambridge, and a visiting scholar at VU Amsterdam, the Copenhagen Business School, the University of Bologna, the University of St. Gallen, The Indian School of Business, and the Singapore Management University.

He has co-edited or co-authored The Emergence of Novelty In Organizations, Oxford University Press; Technological Innovation: Oversights and Foresights, Cambridge University Press; Path Dependence and Path creation, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; Cognition, Knowledge and Organization, JAI Press; Managing in the Modular Age: Architectures, Networks and Organizations, Blackwell and The Innovation Journey Oxford University Press, which was the finalist for the George R. Terry Book Award at the Academy of Management.

Raghu teaches courses on Innovation & Growth, Creativity & Innovation, The Management of Technology, and Entrepreneurship. He has taught undergraduates, graduates, Ph.Ds. and Executives at various institutions including the Smeal College of Business, the Stern School of Business, Indian School of Business, Motorola University, the Copenhagen Business School, the University of Bologna, the University of St. Gallen, Helsinki University of Technology, the Medici School, and Singapore Management University. He has received awards for teaching MBAs on several occasions.

Raghu served as the Chair of the Technology and Innovation Management (TIM) Division of the Academy of Management, the co-director of e-resources for the Academy, the co-editor of Organization Studies and the Associate Editor of Management Science.

Raghu was a co-PI on an NSF grant to study the architecture of collaboration in scientific communities and has received grants from 3M Corporation to study innovation and from the Society for Human Resource Management to study virtual work. He was the recipient of the Tenneco and Dexter awards and the best paper award from the Technology and Innovation Management Division of the Academy of Management as well as from the Center for Entrepreneurial Studies, Stern School. The Journal of Management Inquiry awarded Raghu the ‘Breaking the frame’ award for his paper titled A frame for deframing in strategic analysis. His dissertation was among the top 5 in the BPP dissertation competition, Academy of Management.


Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Emergence of novelty


Ph D, Strategic Management and Organization, University of Minnesota, 1989

Courses Taught

This course is designed to survey and explore the methods used to foster innovation and entrepreneurship in a corporate setting.Emphasis will be placed on the methods used in organizations to foster creativity, innovation, and new venture creation. Thiscourse covers both tactical and strategic approaches to innovation and entrepreneurship, and examines these in multiple contexts,including technology, business process, product, and strategy. Furthermore, the course will expand on widely acceptedframeworks and perspectives for managing innovation, such as agile product development, and the lean startup approach. Studentswill also delve into the more abstract notion of how to create and enable an organizational culture of innovation, manage conflict,and negotiate agreements effectively. Lastly, a final objective of the class is to ensure students understand how to protect andmanage intellectual property.

MGMT 538 – Sem in Org Thry (3)
Current theoretical and research issues applicable to the study of design and management of complex organizations.

MGMT 453 – Creativity and Innov (3)
Analysis of the process of innovation in organzations and of how creativity and other variables influence the process. MGMT 453 Creativity and Innovation (3) Creativity and Innovation analyzes the process of innovation in modern business organizations and the variables that influence the process. The relationship between creativity and innovation is investigated and individual, organizational and environmental influences on both the creative and innovation processes are examined. Special attention is given to organizational architectures that are conducive to innovation. A major objective of the course is to help students develop the competencies necessary for managing innovative organizations.

MGMT 551 – Grwth Innov Strtgy (2)
Identify opportunities for growth and profitability through technological and organizational innovations and market independently or with strategic partners.

MGMT 596 – Individual Studies (Variable)
Creative projects, including nonthesis research, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.


ENTR 500 – Innovation and Entrepreneurship (1.9)
Practical and theortical insights into analyzing a new business opportunity that you have created.

ENGR 426 – Invention Commercialization (3)
Working with Penn State inventions selected by the Intellectual Property Office, student teams define an optimum commercialization path each technology.

MGMT 301H – Basic Management Concepts (3)
Study of fundamental principles and processes available to the understanding of management. Not available to students who have taken B A 304.

B A 304H – Management and Organization (2)
Junior Core Business Management - Honors Section.

ENTR 597A – Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (2)
Formal courses given on a topical or special interest subject which may be offered infrequently; several different topics may be taught in one year or semester.

MGMT 590 – Colloquium (variable)
Continuing seminars which consist of a series of individual lectures by faculty, students, or outside speakers.

MGMT 496 – Independent Studies (variable)
Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.

Selected Publications

Tharchen T., Garud R. B., "The differential categorization of novel products related to wicked problems by institutional actors across places: The case of E-cigarettes. Strategic Organization." Strategic Organization, 2022
Garud R. B., Turunen M., Karunakaran A., "Beyond ambidexterity: An innovation based view of the firm." Organization Theory, 2022
Garud R. B., Kumaraswamy A., Roberts A., Xu L., "Liminal Movement by Platform-based Sharing-economy Ventures: The Case of Uber Technologies.." Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22, no. 3, 2022, pp. 447-475
Berends H., van Berg E., Garud R. B., "Pivoting or persevering with venture ideas: Recalibrating temporal Commitments." Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 36, no. 4, 2021
Garud R. B., Kumaraswamy A., Tuertscher P., "Collaborating Using Digital Technologies: The Role of Generative Memory." E. Vaast, M. Barrett, A. Langley, and H. Tsoukas (Eds.) Organizing in the Digital Age: Understanding the Dynamics of Work, Innovation, and Collective Action. Oxford University Press, 2021
Garud R. B., "Microfoundations of Innovation as Process." M. S. Poole and A. H. Van de Ven (Eds.) Oxford Handbook of Organization Change and Innovation., 2021
Garud R. B., "Winds of Change: A Neo-Design Approach to the Regeneration of Regions.." 2019
Garud R. B., Gehman J., "Performativity: Not a Destination but an Ongoing Journey." Academy of Management Review, 2019
Garud R. B., Lant T., Schildt H., "Generative Imitation, Strategic Distancing and Optimal Distinctiveness During the Growth, Decline and Stabilization of Silicon Alley." Innovation: Organization and Management, vol. 21, no. 1, 2019, pp. 187-213
Kumaraswamy A., Shazad A., Garud R., "Perspectives on Disruptive Innovations." Journal of Management Studies, vol. 55, no. 7, 2018, pp. 1025-1042
Garud R., Gehman J., Guiliani A., "Why not take a performative approach to entrepreneurship." Journal of Business Venturing Insights, vol. 9, 2018, pp. 60-64
Garud R., Gehman J., Giuliani A., "Serendipity Arrangements for Exapting Science-based Innovations.." Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 32, no. 1, 2018, pp. 125–140
Garud R. B., Gehman J., Tharchen T., "Performativity as Ongoing Journeys: Implications for Strategy, Entrepreneurship, and Innovation." Long Range Planning, 2017, doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2017.02.003
Garud R. B., Berends H., Tuertscher P., "Qualitative Approaches for Studying Innovation as Process." 2017
Garud R. B., Turunen M., "The Banality of Organizational Innovations: Embracing the Substance-Process Duality." Innovation: Organization & Management, 2017
Garud R., Gehman J., Kumaraswamy A., Tuertscher P., "From the Process of Innovation to Innovation as Process, in A. Langley and H. Tsoukas." 2017
Garud R. B., "Theory Evaluation, Entrepreneurial Processes, and Performativity." Academy of Management Review, 2016
Garud R. B., "The performative puzzle: How institutions matter in marginalizing and reconstituting identities." 2016
Garud R., "Technological Exaptation: A Narrative Approach." Industrial and Corporate Change, 2016
Garud R. B., "The Disruptor’s Dilemma: TiVo and the U.S. Television Ecosystem." Strategic Management Journal, 2016
Garud R., Tuertscher P., Van de Ven A., "Business Innovation Processes." 2015
Garud R., Simpson B., Ann L., Tsoukas H., "The emergence of novelty." 2015
Tuertscher P., Garud R. B., Kumaraswamy A., "Justification and interlaced knowledge at ATLAS, CERN." Organization Science, 2014
Garud R. B., Gehman J., Giuliani A., "Contextualizing entrepreneurial innovation: A narrative perspective." Research Policy, 2014
Garud R. B., Gehman J., Karunakaran A., "Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: The Case of Climategate." Research Policy, 2014
Garud R. B., Tuesrtscher P., Van de Ven A., "Perspectives on Innovation Processes." Academy of Management Annals, 2013
Gehman J., Trevino L., Garud R. B., "Values Work: The emergence and performance of organizational values practices." Academy of Management Journal, vol. 56, no. 1, 2013, pp. 84-112
Garud R. B., Giuliani A., "A narrative perspective to entrepreneurial opportunities." Academy of Management Review, Dialogue, 2013
Garud R. B., Gehman J., "Metatheoretical Perspectives on Sustainability Journeys: Evolutionary, Relational and Durational.." Research Policy, vol. 41, 2012, pp. 980-995
Karnoe P., Garud R. B., "Path Creation: Co-creation of heterogeneous resources in the emergence of the danish wind turbine cluster." European Planning Studies, vol. 20, no. 5, 2012
Berends H., Garud R. B., Debackere K., Weggeman M., "Thinking along: A process for tapping into knowledge across boundaries." International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 53, no. 1, 2011, pp. 69-88
Garud R. B., Dunbar R., Bartel C., "Dealing with unusual experiences: A narrative perspective on organizational learning." Organization Science, vol. 22, no. 3, 2011, pp. 587-601
Garud R. B., Gehman J., Kumaraswamy A., "Complexity Arrangements for Sustaining Innovation: Lessons from 3M Corporation." Organization Studies, vol. 32, no. 6, 2011, pp. 737-767
Garud R. B., Kumaraswamy A., Tuertscher P., "A model of and for virtual projects." Project-based organizations/organizing, Advances in Strategic Management, (JAI Press), 2011, pp. 357-388.
Raghuram S., Tuertscher P., Garud R. B., "Mapping the field of virtual work: A co-citation analysis.." Information Systems Research, vol. 21, no. 4, 2010, pp. 983-999
Garud R. B., Gehman J., Karnoe P., "Categorization by Association: How the atomic bomb became emission free electricity." Research in the Sociology Work: Institutions and Entrepreneurship, (Emerald Group), vol. 20, 2010, pp. 51-93
Garud R. B., Gehman J., "Procrustean transformations: Climategate, scientific controversies and hope." Debordements: Melanges offerts a Michel Canon, (Presses des MINES), 2010, pp. 153-167
Garud R. B., Kumaraswamy A., Karnoe P., "Path dependence or path creation?." Journal of Management Studies, vol. 47, no. 4, 2010, pp. 760-774
Dunbar R., Garud R. B., "Distributed knowledge and indeterminate meaning: The case of the Columbia shuttle flight." Organization Studies, vol. 30, no. 4, 2009, pp. 397-421
Ansari S. M., Garud R. B., "Inter-generational transitions in social-technical systems: The case of mobile communications." Research Policy, vol. 38, no. 2, 2009, pp. 382-392
Bartel C., Garud R. B., "The role of narratives in sustaining organizational innovation." Organization Science, vol. 20, no. 1, 2009, pp. 107-117
Garud R. B., "Conferences as venues for the configuration of emerging fields: The case of cochlear implants." Journal of Management Studies, vol. 45, no. 6, 2008, pp. 1061-1088
Garud R. B., Munir K., "From transactions to transformation costs: The case of Polaroid's SX-70 Camera.." Research Policy, vol. 37, no. 4, 2008, pp. 690-705
Garud R. B., Jain S., Tuertscher P., "Incomplete by design and designing for incompleteness.." Organization Studies, vol. 29, no. 3, 2008, pp. 351-371
Garud R. B., Hardy C., Maguire S., "Institutional entrepreneurship as embedded agency: An introduction to the special issues." Organization Studies, no. 7, 2007, pp. 957-969
Garud R. B., Hardy C., Maguire S., "Special Issue on 'Institutional Entrepreneurship." Organization Studies, 2007
Beunza D., Garud R. B., "Securities analysts as frame makers.." Market Devices, (Blackwell Publishers), 2007, pp. 13-39
Garud R. B., Karunakaran A., "Enabling Identity-challenging Innovations Through Participative Experimentation: The Case of Gmail and Adsense at Google." Strategic Organization
Garud R. B., Schildt H., Lant T., "Entrepreneurial storytelling, future expectations, and the paradox of legitimacy." Organization Science

Research Impact and Media Mention


Journal of Business Venturig Design, Editorial Board, April 2021 - Present
Journal of Business Venturing, Editorial Board, February 2017 - Present
Journal of Management Studies (SI on Managing in the Age of Disruption), Co-Editor, April 2016 - January 2018
Co-editor of Special Issue on "Managing in the Age of Disruption"
Innovation: Organisation and Management, January 2016 - Present
Editorial Review Board
Academy of Management Discoveries, Editorial Board, September 2013 - Present
Organization Studies, Editorial Board, January 2012 - Present